The notion that racial identity development is the same for all African Americans, regardless of disability, is difficult to endorse due to the large psychosocial impact that a disability can have on an individual's life (Wright, 1983).According to Wright (1983), the stigma attached to disability status in American society can be so intense and pervasive that it can overshadow other personal characteristics (e.g., ethnic/cultural attributes) that comprise the individual's self-concept.Walker (1988) noted that although some societies looked upon individuals with disabilities with "awe and reverence," in most societies disability has traditionally been associated with tremendous negativism.
Journal of College Student Development, 54, 322-328. Throughout his career, Cross was largely concerned with racial/ethnic identity theory and the negative effects of Western thought and science on the psychology of Black Americans, and specifically the need for “psychological liberation under conditions of oppression.” Here, he met Badi Foster, who would later become his best man and lifelong friend and mentor.While at DU, Cross seriously questioned his religious beliefs and eventually denounced God because he couldn’t explain slavery or the Holocaust.Cross relates that at these meetings, he learned the importance of culture consciousness, not just race consciousness, an idea that would become influential in his model of race and cultural identity conceptions.
He also claims to have learned much about the conversion process through his interactions of Jimmy Reid, who organized a second-tier Black Panther organization, and happened to share office space with the WSSC staff.
Yet, studies that have explored the relationship between the attitudes of minority students and educational outcomes have mixed findings. Counseling American minorities: A cross-cultural perspective (4th ed.).