The pumps allow the synaptosomes to concentrate serotonin by taking it up from the fluid in which the synaptosomes are suspended.By radioactively tagging the serotonin, the rate of uptake can measure by adding tagged serotonin to the suspension for a specified period of time, then centrifuging and counting radioactivity in the synaptosomal pellet and expressing the result as the amount of radioactivity per milligram of protein.One approach is to isolate the neuronal uptake pump for serotonin by homogenizing brain regions rich in serotonin terminal fields.The homogenization process lysises the neuronal membranes in such a way that the membrane can close back on itself to form synaptosome preparations which retain the functional integrity of the serotonin uptake pump. For this reason, the medication trial should probably be initiated with a very low dose -- as little as 10 to 25 milligrams (mg) per day of imipramine, for example. Typically taken in one dose at bedtime, but can be divided. Use during pregnancy or breast-feeding only after approval from your physician. Headache, drowsiness, dizziness, nervousness, trouble sleeping, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, altered taste, sweating, stomach upset, constipation, loss of appetite, anxiety, or yawning may occur. Some people may experience side effects on dosages as low as 10 mg per day: jitteriness, irritation, unusual energy, and difficulty falling or staying asleep. One-third of panic-prone individuals become jittery and actually experience more anxiety symptoms for the first two to three weeks. The sedating side effects can limit productivity and concentration during the day. Consult your physician before using during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Start at 25 to 75 mg per day and increase over one or two weeks to an average dose of 75 to 150 mg and a maximum dose of 300 mg. Nausea and dizziness can be be common side effects.Short-acting (eg, triazolam) and intermediate-acting (eg, estazolam, temazepam) benzodiazepine receptor agonists are useful for sleep-onset insomnia.
The anticholinergic effects of dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and difficulty in urination; postural hypotension; tachycardia, loss of sex drive; erectile failure; increased sensitivity to the sun; weight gain; sedation (sleepiness); increased sweating.
Sedative-hypnotics include nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists (zaleplon, zolpidem, eszopiclone); short-acting benzodiazepine receptor agonists (triazolam); intermediate-acting benzodiazepine receptor agonists (estazolam, temazepam); and selective melatonin agonists (ramelteon).