After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the substance in question will have decayed.Many radioactive substances decay from one nuclide into a final, stable decay product (or "daughter") through a series of steps known as a decay chain.Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. That is, at some random point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will be transformed into a different nuclide by the process known as radioactive decay.The radiation chemistry controls much of radiation biology as radiation has an effect on living things at the molecular scale, to explain it another way the radiation alters the biochemicals within an organism, the alteration of the biomolecules then changes the chemistry which occurs within the organism, this change in chemistry then can lead to a biological outcome.As a result, nuclear chemistry greatly assists the understanding of medical treatments (such as cancer radiotherapy) and has enabled these treatments to improve.It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides, radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as nuclear reactors) which are designed to perform nuclear processes.This includes the corrosion of surfaces and the behavior under conditions of both normal and abnormal operation (such as during an accident).
The applications of nuclear chemistry may be more widespread than you think.Various methods exist differing in accuracy, cost and applicable time scale.All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements, each with its own atomic number, indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.It also includes the study and use of nuclear processes in non-radioactive areas of human activity.
A nuclear weapon of the "Little Boy" type, the uranium gun-type detonated over Hiroshima. "Little Boy" weighed about 9,000 pounds and had a yield approximating 15,000 tons of high explosives. The nuclear age had truly begun with the first military use of atomic weapons.
An important area is the behavior of objects and materials after being placed into a nuclear waste storage or disposal site.