A climate record—extending deep into the Earth's past—has been assembled, and continues to be built up, based on geological evidence from borehole temperature profiles, cores removed from deep accumulations of ice, floral and faunal records, glacial and periglacial processes, stable-isotope and other analyses of sediment layers, and records of past sea levels.
More recent data are provided by the instrumental record.
African Pollen Database The African Pollen Database is an international network, which supports the development of scientific research in Africa in the field of past environmental and climate change.
The long-term objective of the APD is to collect pollen data, place them at the disposal of the whole scientific community, to archive the information for future generations of researchers and to promote international scientific cooperation.
New dating methods are invented all the time, however, most have practical limitations.
Geologic research and mapping requires the determinations of the ages and composition of rocks.
For the study of past climate change, see paleoclimatology.The example used here contrasts sharply with the way conventional scientific dating methods are characterized by some critics (for example, refer to discussion in "Common Creationist Criticisms of Mainstream Dating Methods" in the Age of the Earth FAQ and Isochron Dating FAQ).A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging.From geologists to consultants, products to specialist services - full contact details are provided, enabling quick and easy sourcing and searching of suppliers and services alike.
Global Volcanism Program Database of volcanoes compiled by the Smithsonian Institution with descriptions of both ongoing and past volcanism around the world.
After selecting a site you can examine or download the data as well as some summary metadata.